Critical Thinking Notes
Critical Thinking: Strategies in Decision Making
? Problem Identification & Formulation
? Decision MakingCritical Thinking:
Strategies in Decision Making
? Decision Implementation
? Evaluation of Decision Outcome & Processes
Trigger points: positive and negative
? Framing the problem
??? Identify the problem
??? Define objective (s)
??? Define goals
??? Define criteria
Evaluate effects of the problems
The five thinking errors
1. Personalization:
egocentric thinking in which the world is seen to revolve unduly around the individual.
2. polarized thinking:
also called ???black and white thinking??? or ???dichotomous thinking,??? categorizing complexities into one extreme or the other (later we examine it as the ???either/or fallacy???).
3. Overgeneralization:
drawing broad conclusions on the basis of a single incident.
4. Catastrophizing:
a common characteristic of anxious people in which they consider the worst possible outcome of an event.
5. Selective abstraction:
focusing on one detail of a situation and ignoring the larger picture.
Decision making process

? Decision-making style
??? Intuitive
??? Objective
??? Autocratic
??? Collaborative/consensus
Cause and effect diagram
CAUSE Effect
Money Problem
Machinery
Manpower
Materials
Environment

PROBLEM STATMENT
A persuasive problem statement consists of three parts: 1) the ideal, 2) the reality, and 3) the consequences for the reader of the feasibility report.
Example
STATEMENT 1 (DESCRIPTION OF THE IDEAL SCENARIO)
Describe the goals, desired state, or the values that your audience considers important and that are relevant to the problem.

(BUT)
Connect statements 1 and 2 using a term such as “but,” “however,”
“Unfortunately,” or “in spite of”;

STATEMENT 2 (THE REALITY OF THE SITUATION)
Describe a condition that prevents the goal, state, or value discussed in statement
1 from being achieved or realized at the present time.

STATEMENT 3 (THE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE AUDIENCE)
Using specific details, show how the situation in statement 2 contains little promise of improvement unless something is done. Then emphasize the benefits of research by projecting the consequences of possible solutions as well.

RESEARCH (YOUR PROPOSED RESEARCH TO INVESTIGATE THE POSSIBILITY OF MAKING THE REALITY MORE LIKE THE IDEAL.)
Describe the areas of inquiry you will use that could lead to solutions to the problem— how will you research the problem What sources of information, types of research (primary or secondary),or tools will you use to help you find solutions and make recommendations to resolve the clash

PROBLEM STATEMENT EXAMPLES

Example #1

STATEMENT 1
In order to provide excellent patient care at a minimal cost, Middletown Hospital needs diagnostic procedures that are safe, efficient, and accurate. In addition, the procedures should not be overly painful for the patient.
STATEMENT 2
Right now, Middletown Hospitals main diagnostic tools are CAT scans and myelograms (spinal taps). The CAT scan fails to make clear diagnoses 60% of the time. When the CAT scan fails, doctors must resort to the myelogram. While the myelograms are accurate, this procedure is very painful and sometimes dangerous for the patient.
STATEMENT 3
If Middletown Hospital continues to do the two procedures, they will not only be wasting time and money, which jeopardizes their overall efficiency and earning potential. Also, undue suffering could lead patients to choose another hospital with more advanced facilities.

RESEARCH
A new diagnostic technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) may surpass the CAT scan in accuracy and reduce the need to resort to the myelogram. I propose to research the feasibility of establishing an NMR lab at Middletown hospital. I will investigate the accuracy, efficiency, and safety of NMR as well as implementation issues.

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